90377 sedna diameter

[16], Astronomer Michael E. Brown, co-discoverer of Sedna and numerous other possible dwarf planets, thinks that it is the most scientifically important trans-Neptunian object found to date, because understanding its unusual orbit is likely to yield valuable information about the origin and early evolution of the Solar System. One scenario involves perturbations of Sedna's orbit by a hypothetical planetary-sized body in the Hills cloud. It is bright enough, and therefore large enough, that this is expected to be the case,[76] and several astronomers have called it one. "Which are the dwarfs in the solar system? But the biggest difference is size-wise: Sedna is enormous, with a diameter of 1000 km, making it slightly larger than the dwarf planet Ceres. Combining those with precovery observations taken at the Samuel Oschin telescope in August 2003, and from the Near-Earth Asteroid Tracking consortium in 2001–2002, allowed accurate determination of its orbit. [50][54] Computer simulations by Patryk Lykawka have suggested that Sedna's orbit may have been caused by a body roughly the size of Earth, ejected outward by Neptune early in the Solar System's formation and currently in an elongated orbit between 80 and 170 AU from the Sun. It was discovered on November 14, 2003 by Mike Brown, Chad Trujillo and David Rabinowitz. Spectroscopy has revealed that Sedna's surface composition is similar to those of some other trans-Neptunian objects, being largely a mixture of water, methane, and nitrogen ices with tholins. If Sedna were captured from another planetary system that rotated in the same direction as the Solar System, then all of its population would have orbits on relatively low inclinations and have semi-major axes ranging from 100 to 500 AU. [51][64][65] Stellar encounters during this time would have minimal effect on the Oort cloud's final mass and population since the Sun had excess material for replenishing the Oort cloud population. [51], Sedna's highly elliptical orbit means that the probability of its detection was roughly 1 in 80, which suggests that, unless its discovery was a fluke, another 40–120 Sedna-sized objects would exist within the same region. [71] This grouping is heavily questioned, and many astronomers have suggested that it, together with a few other objects (e.g. The HST search found no satellite candidates to a limit of about 500 times fainter than Sedna (Brown and Suer 2007). [43] The detection of methane and water ices was confirmed in 2006 by the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared photometry. II. For most of its orbit, it is even farther from the Sun than at present, with its aphelion estimated at 937 AU[5] (31 times Neptune's distance, or about 1.5% of a light-year), making it one of the most distant-known objects in the Solar System other than long-period comets. [60][61] John J. Matese and Daniel P. Whitmire, longtime proponents of the possibility of a wide binary companion to the Sun, have suggested that an object of 5 MJ lying at roughly 7,850 AU from the Sun could produce a body in Sedna's orbit. [83] It was calculated that a flyby mission to Sedna could take 24.48 years using a Jupiter gravity assist, based on launch dates of 6 May 2033 or 23 June 2046. At the time of its discovery it was the intrinsically brightest object found in the Solar System since Pluto in 1930. Due to its orbit, the chances of Sedna being found were 0.017%. On 15 March 2004, articles on Sedna in the popular press reported that a tenth planet had been discovered. Sedna har ein estimert diameter på omtrent 1180 til 1800 km. [27][28] At its aphelion, Sedna orbits the Sun at a mere 1.3% of Earth's orbital speed. 90377 Sedna (or simply just Sedna) is a large trans-Neptunian object. This question was answered under the International Astronomical Union definition of a planet, adopted on 24 August 2006, which mandated that a planet must have cleared the neighborhood around its orbit. NASA's orbiting Spitzer Space Telescope was also pointed toward the object, but could not detect it — putting an upper-bound on its diame… Although Sedna is listed on NASA's Solar System exploration website,[82] NASA is not known to be considering any type of mission at this time. These estimates are based on thermophysical model techniques. [40] Its surface is homogeneous in colour and spectrum; this may be because Sedna, unlike objects nearer the Sun, is rarely impacted by other bodies, which would expose bright patches of fresh icy material like that on 8405 Asbolus. This page shows Asteroid 90377 Sedna (2003 VB12) location and other relevant astronomical data in real time. ", "The Deep Ecliptic Survey: A Search for Kuiper Belt Objects and Centaurs. It is possible that such an object may have been scattered out of the Solar System after the formation of the inner Oort cloud. An important Note: With most of the Dwarf Planets and contenders being only recently discovered (Haumea, Eris, Sedna and Makemake in 200… Spektroskopija je otkrila da je površina Sedne sastavljena od sličnog materijala kao i drugi trans-neptunski objekti, dakle spoj vode, metana i dušikovog leda sa tolinima.Njena površina je jedna od najcrvenijih od svih objekata sunčeva sustava. maybe.all we , thus giving it a diameter of approximately as ,… km maybe.we we a moon At the time of its discovery it was the intrinsically brightest object found in the Solar System since Pluto in as light all . It may have been affected by the same processes as Sedna. One such hypothetical companion is Nemesis, a dim companion to the Sun that has been proposed to be responsible for the supposed periodicity of mass extinctions on Earth from cometary impacts, the lunar impact record, and the common orbital elements of a number of long-period comets. [2], Brown initially nicknamed Sedna "The Flying Dutchman", or "Dutch", after a legendary ghost ship, because its slow movement had initially masked its presence from his team. 90377 Sedna je veliki planetoid u dalekim predjelima sunčeva sustava koji je 2012. bio tri puta udaljeniji od Sunca nego Neptun. Sedna has a Stern–Levison parameter estimated to be much less than 1,[f] and therefore cannot be considered to have cleared the neighborhood, even though no other objects have yet been discovered in its vicinity. Rabinowitz, Schaefer, Tourtellotte, 2011. A team led by astronomer Mike Brown discovered 90377 Sedna in late 2003. [66] Subsequent simulations incorporating the new data suggested about 40 Sedna-sized objects probably exist in this region, with the brightest being about Eris's magnitude (−1.0). We report the discovery of the minor planet 2013 SY 99 on an exceptionally distant, highly eccentric orbit. The planet would be about 10 times as massive as Earth. During a 200-year period near perihelion, the maximum temperature on Sedna should exceed 35.6 K (−237.6 °C), the transition temperature between alpha-phase solid N2 and the beta-phase seen on Triton. Artist's impression of 90377 Sedna Sedna has a V-band absolute magnitude (H) of about 1.8, and it is estimated to have an albedo of about 0.32, thus giving it a diameter of approximately 1,000 km. Recent simulations show that Sedna's orbital traits could be explained by perturbations by a Neptune-mass object at 2,000 AU (or less), a Jupiter-mass (MJ) at 5,000 AU, or even an Earth-mass object at 1,000 AU. Brown also suggested to the Interna… If a trans-Neptunian planet was responsible, all such objects would share roughly the same perihelion (about 80 AU). Sedna has a V-band absolute magnitude (H) of about as maybe.see , and it is estimated to have an albedo of about . This means that Sedna is too cold for methane to evaporate from its surface and then fall back as snow, which happens on Triton and probably on Pluto. The calculations showed that the object was moving along a distant highly eccentric orbit, at a distance of 90.3 AU from the Sun. 40-120 more objects this size should exist without us knowing, but, as they are so small and far away, they may not be discovered for a while. [16] Because it is a great deal closer to the Sun than was expected for an Oort cloud object, and has an inclination roughly in line with the planets and the Kuiper belt, they described the planetoid as being an "inner Oort cloud object", situated in the disc reaching from the Kuiper belt to the spherical part of the cloud. [1][2][3], The name "Sedna" comes from the Inuit goddess of the sea, thought to live at the bottom of the Arctic Ocean.[2]. Around 1250-1800 km in diameter, Sedna takes roughly 10,500 years to orbit the Sun, much higher than most known trans-Neptunian objects. Although the survey was sensitive to movement out to 1,000 AU and discovered the likely dwarf planet Gonggong, it detected no new sednoid. [41], Trujillo and colleagues have placed upper limits in Sedna's surface composition of 60% for methane ice and 70% for water ice. It was discovered by Mike Brown, Chad Trujillo and David Rabinowitz on November 14, 2003. [55] Mike Brown's various sky surveys have not detected any Earth-sized objects out to a distance of about 100 AU. [35] Only a single attempt has been made to find a satellite,[36][37] and it has been suggested that there is a chance of up to 25% that a satellite could have been missed. Sedna Mystery Deepens as Hubble Offers Best Look at Farthest Planetoid. This page was last changed on 9 January 2021, at 18:14. (updates daily)", "Solar System Exploration: Multimedia: Gallery", "Solar System Exploration: Missions to Dwarf Planets", "Is Humanity Ignoring Our First Chance For A Mission To An Oort Cloud Object? 90377 Sedna. Therefore, it must have been tugged into its current eccentric orbit by a gravitational interaction with another body. The discovery formed part of a survey begun in 2001 with the Samuel Oschin telescope at Palomar Observatory near San Diego, California, using Yale's 160-megapixel Palomar Quest camera. A large minor planet in the outer reaches of the Solar System, (Inuit goddess of sea and marine animals). From these observations, they suggested the following model of the surface: 24% Triton-type tholins, 7% amorphous carbon, 10% nitrogen ices, 26% methanol, and 33% methane. It is a possible dwarf planet. Siegel characterized Sedna as an attractive target due to its status as a possible inner Oort cloud object. At 38 K, the N2 vapor pressure would be 14 microbar (1.4 Pa or 0.000014 atm). In either case, the stellar encounter had likely occurred early after the Sun's formation, about less than 100 million years after the Sun had formed. For this reason, Sedna is known as "Cobian", meaning shadows in Ancient Greek. [22], The customary English spelling "Sedna" was popularized by Franz Boas. [70], The Minor Planet Center, which officially catalogs the objects in the Solar System, classifies Sedna as a scattered object. [16] A study by Morbidelli and Levison suggested that the most likely explanation for Sedna's orbit was that it had been perturbed by a close (approximately 800 AU) pass by another star in the first 100 million years or so of the Solar System's existence. ", "How many dwarf planets are there in the outer solar system? [40] Sedna and two other very distant objects – 2006 SQ372 and (87269) 2000 OO67 – share their color with outer classical Kuiper belt objects and the centaur 5145 Pholus, suggesting a similar region of origin. [42] Barucci and colleagues compared Sedna's spectrum with that of Triton and detected weak absorption bands belonging to methane and nitrogen ices. Sedna has a high albedo and very red – the reddest large object in the Solar System after Mars. Sedna Diameter: 1,600 km Sedna is a detached object between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud. Click on each row of the table to locate Asteroid 90377 Sedna (2003 VB12) in … Fysiske eigenskapar. They observed that, unlike scattered disc objects such as Eris, Sedna's perihelion (76 AU) is too distant for it to have been scattered by the gravitational influence of Neptune. Estimates for Sedna's size vary, but it is believed to be slightly smaller than the size of Pluto (1,400 miles or 2,250 kilometers in diameter). [51][53], The trans-Neptunian planet hypothesis has been advanced in several forms by a number of astronomers, including Rodney Gomes and Patryk Lykawka. [68] Another high-perihelion trans-Neptunian object was announced by Sheppard and colleagues in 2018, provisionally designated 2015 TG387 and now named Leleākūhonua. 90377 Sedna (or simply just Sedna) is a large trans-Neptunian object. "The last time "Sedna" was this close to the Sun, Earth was just coming out of the last ice age; the next time it comes back, the world might again be a completely different place," said Brown. [31] It was initially speculated that Sedna's rotation was slowed by the gravitational pull of a large binary companion, similar to Pluto's moon Charon. Diameter Sedna sekitar 1.180 sampai 1.800 km dengan massa 1,7 - 6,1 x 10 21 kg. Perhaps, this an opportune time to further discuss the presence of these mysterious bodies and stimulate interest for further research. Provisionally named 2003 VB12, the object later received the name Sedna … 90377 Sedna, or simply Sedna, is a large planetoid in the outer reaches of the Solar System that was, as of 2020[update], at a distance of about 85 astronomical units (1.27×1010 km; 7.9×109 mi) from the Sun, about three times farther than Neptune. [23] No objection was raised to the name, and no competing names were suggested. [16][32] Another object, 2000 CR105, has a similar but less extreme orbit: it has a perihelion of 44.3 AU, an aphelion of 394 AU, and an orbital period of 3,240 years. [22] Brian Marsden, the head of the Minor Planet Center, said that such an action was a violation of protocol, and that some members of the IAU might vote against it. [9] Because Sedna has no known moons, determining its mass is currently impossible without sending a space probe. [10], Sedna has a V-band absolute magnitude (H) of about 1.8, and it is estimated to have an albedo of about 0.32, thus giving it a diameter of approximately 1,000 km. The Minor Planet Center currently places Sedna in the scattered disc, a group of objects sent into highly elongated orbits by the gravitational influence of Neptune. It was named after a sea goddess in Inuit mythology. maybe. [48] In their initial paper, Brown, Rabinowitz and colleagues suggested three possible candidates for the perturbing body: an unseen planet beyond the Kuiper belt, a single passing star, or one of the young stars embedded with the Sun in the stellar cluster in which it formed. This classification has been contested because its perihelion is too large for it to have been scattered by a known planet, leading some astronomers to informally refer to it as the first known member of the inner Oort cloud. [42] The presence of nitrogen on the surface suggests the possibility that, at least for a short time, Sedna may have a tenuous atmosphere. 90377 Sedna (520 AU average) is a large, reddish object with a gigantic, highly elliptical orbit that takes it from about 76 AU at perihelion to 940 AU at aphelion and takes 11,400 years to … Follow-up observations were made in November–December 2003 with the SMARTS telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in Chile, the Tenagra IV telescope in Nogales, Arizona, and the Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. This page wis last eeditit on 16 Januar 2021, at 13:05. [16], Mike Brown and his team favored the hypothesis that Sedna was lifted into its current orbit by a star from the Sun's birth cluster, arguing that Sedna's aphelion of about 1,000 AU, which is relatively close compared to those of long-period comets, is not distant enough to be affected by passing stars at their current distances from the Sun. Therefore, Sedna's surface temperature never rises above -240°C. Edit. NASA is not currently planning any space missions to explore Sedna, but there is some talk of missions to happen when Sedna reaches perihelion again. [2][3] It is one of the most distant known objects in the Solar System. [42], Models of internal heating via radioactive decay suggest that Sedna might be capable of supporting a subsurface ocean of liquid water. Abstract. [66] "I call Sedna a fossil record of the earliest Solar System", said Brown in 2006. [21], Brown also suggested to the International Astronomical Union's (IAU) Minor Planet Center that any future objects discovered in Sedna's orbital region should also be named after entities in arctic mythologies. [45][46], If Sedna formed in its current location, the Sun's original protoplanetary disc must have extended as far as 75 AU into space. [43] Its deep red spectral slope is indicative of high concentrations of organic material on its surface, and its weak methane absorption bands indicate that methane on Sedna's surface is ancient, rather than freshly deposited. When Sedna was discovered it was 89.6 AU[29] from the Sun approaching perihelion, and was the most distant object in the Solar System observed. 90377 Sedna is ’n groot kleinplaneet in die buitewyke van die Sonnestelsel wat in 2015 sowat 86 AE van die Son af was, sowat drie keer so ver as Neptunus.Met spektroskopie is vasgestel Sedna se oppervlaksamestelling is soortgelyk aan dié van sommige ander trans-Neptunus-voorwerpe (TNV's), dus grootliks ’n mengsel van water-, metaan- en stikstofyse. [40] The presence of methane further supports the existence of tholins on Sedna's surface, because they are produced by irradiation of methane. In 2004, the discoverers placed an upper limit of 1,800 km on its diameter,[33] but by 2007 this was revised downward to less than 1,600 km after observation by the Spitzer Space Telescope. [25] The modern pronunciation in the region (southern Baffin Island) is 'Sanna', with dn perhaps becoming nn over the years. It … It was discovered on November 14, 2003 by Mike Brown, Chad Trujillo and David Rabinowitz. [2][3] Around 1250-1800 km in diameter,[2] Sedna takes roughly 10,500 years to orbit the Sun, much higher than most known trans-Neptunian objects. Sedna has an estimated diameter of between 1,180 and 1,800 kilometres (730 to 1,120 miles). Dynamical Classification, the Kuiper Belt Plane, and the Core Population", "Regarding the criteria for planethood and proposed planetary classification schemes", "(90377) Sedna: Investigation of surface compositional variation". , Sedna takes roughly 10,500 years to orbit the Sun reaches it an estimated of! Attempted to locate another member of Sedna Because very little light from Sun! On Sedna 90377 sedna diameter late 2003 after a sea goddess in Inuit mythology ] at the time of its discovery was... In diameter, Sedna must be in hydrostatic equilibrium surpassed by Eris, which is smaller Pluto... 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